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Titration is one of the most common techniques used in analytical laboratories to determine the concentration of a dissolved substance. For this application, we offer a large range of volumetric solutions ready to use, subject to stringent manufacturing and testing requirements. We select the appropriate raw materials and packaging to assure the highest purity and quality. They are traceable to SRMs of NIST and the factor of the volumetric solutions is adjusted to f = 1.000 with a tolerance of ±0.1%. Our program also includes concentrated volumetric solutions, indicators and standards.

Concentrated volumetric solutions - Stable, accurate and long-lasting solutions
We offer concentrated solutions for the preparation of volumetric solutions by dilution. With PanReac AppliChem concentrated volumetric solutions you will save storage space. They are very stable and have very long conservation (5 years). Quick and easy to make, just dilute with the desired solvent. One can prepare concentrations other than those specified on the label. If the solution has been diluted under optimal conditions, we guarantee the concentration with ±0.2% accuracy.

Titration indicators
Indicators are used with volumetric solutions to show the end point of the titration through visual color change. The pH range over which an indicator changes color is called its transition interval and is characteristic of each indicator. The visual transition range is the main factor in the selection of the pH indicator. Our program includes both indicators in powder form and ready-to-use solutions.
Volumetric analysis indicators can be categorized based on the type of reaction involved in the process:
• pH indicators in aqueous media
• Acid-base indicators in non-aqueous media
• Redox indicators
• Adsorption indicators
• Complexometric indicators
• Others

Volumetric standards
To check the factor of the volumetric solutions, we supply standards for volumetry, our range of reference materials with a high purity of 100 ± 0.05% after drying. Each standard comes with its corresponding certificate of analysis indicating its purity and tolerance, the method used to determine this value, the NIST reference standard and the expiry date.

Volumetric solutions and indicators according to pharmacopeias
Indicators and volumetric solutions required in the tests and assays of the pharmacopoeia monographs have to meet the specifications indicated in the general chapter “Reagents” of the European Pharmacopoeia (EP / Ph. Eur.) or in the chapter “Reagents, Indicators and Solutions” of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The pharmaceutical industry needs these solutions for the quality control of both raw materials and the final product. We use the denomination “Reag. Ph. Eur”, “Reag. USP” or “Reag. USP, Ph. Eur.” when the product is described and fulfills the requirements for analytical reagents, indicated in these general chapters of the pharmacopoeias.
• Standardization according to European Pharmacopoeia (EP / Ph. Eur.) and/or United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) indicated on the product label.
• Traceable to NIST SRMs
• The factor of the solutions is adjusted to 1.000 with a precision of ±0.1%, providing more accurate measurements.
• Stable for at least 36 months in most cases.